Thursday, December 31, 2009
During his life, Gusdur known as the man who likes to criticize through humor, jokes fresh. Through his intelligence and humor, makes Gusdur easy to socialize with world leaders. Gusdur also known as a controversial figure, there was a figure that say ' there are only two things that we do not know, first, when we die, and second, what does Gusdur want.
Gusdur is the fourth president of Indonesia in 2004, actually the winner of the Indonesian party election 2004 is PDIP, so Megawati should be a president, but through the central axis Gusdur who eventually became president, and Megawati became his vice. However, Gusdur only become president for a few moments, his position as a President should be replaced by Megawati, also with no apparent reason.
Gusdur also a very influential figure, especially among the NU community. He has served as chairman of the NU. Thought Gusdur a historical figure Indonesia, although some thought of Gusdur caused controversy. His life was coloring Indonesian history.
Tuesday, December 8, 2009
But many problems must be solved before every boy and girl in the world can be taught to read and write. One of the most serious problems is the lack of teachers. In some rural areas, teachers are badly needed, but the life is hard and lonely. Teachers prefer teaching in the cities.
Sometimes there is a special need for teachers of particular subjects. In Africa, for example, there is a great shortage of teachers of science, mathematics, English and French.
In many of the newly formed countries, educated people cannot be spared to teach. They are called on to serve their governments.
Saturday, November 14, 2009
Histats, free web statistic service is on trouble now. Since 2 hours ago, histats was error. If you cannot access histats site, that was not because of error in the computer or your internet provider, but the databases of histats site is being was maintained as the message on the browser when I opened the site.
Free web statistic service histats can not be accessed. In fact, almost all of my blogs use histats statistics. So, today's statistic of my blogs are blank pages statisticnya (:. I don't know how many visitors visited my blog today, I don't know the keywords they used. I also use google analytic, but it did not give me data as detailed as histats. I hope, histats solve its problem soon.
Thursday, November 12, 2009
Children mainly find employment in domestic helps and in factories, mills, small tea and snack shops also construction sites. According to a recent UNICEF report, every third house in India has a working child and every fourth Indian under the age of 15 is employed. Child laborers are often paid very little for long hours of labor. Sometimes they are not paid at all.
The recent argument over the employment of children in the carpet industry has resulted in ban on India carpets exports in many countries. The sharp eyes and nimble fingers of children make them invaluable for the carpet industry, a big foreign exchange earner that employs over 300,000 children.
Wednesday, November 4, 2009
A conclusion should:
- Stress the importance of the thesis statement
- Give the essay a sense of completeness
- Leave a final impression on the reader
- Answer the wuestion "So what?" Show your readers why the paper was important. Show them that your paper was meaningful and useful
- Synthesize, don't summarize. Don't simply repeat things that were in your paper. They have read it. Show them how the points you made and the support and examples you used were not random, but fit together. Redirect your readers. Give your reader something to think about, perhaps a way to use your paper in the "real" world. If your introduction went from general to specific, make your conclusion go from specific to general. Think globally.
Create a new meaning. You don't have to give new information to create a new meaning. By demonstrating how your ideas work together, you can create a new picture. Often the sum of the paper worth more than its parts.
A conclusion is a proposition inferred. To infer is to draw a conclusion. To infer that X is true, an inference is the conclusion draw from a set of facts or circumstances. Much of the study of logical explores the validity or invalidity of inferences and implication.
Wednesday, October 7, 2009
I personally strongly disagree with the coming of Maria Ozawa. Clearly pornographic films is a film that decadent nation. But why the coming of porn actresses are in fact as though expected by many people of Indonesia. I agree with Ustadz Yusuf Mansyur, Miyabi should be banned and I hope Miyabi will cancel her coming to Indonesia. Miyabi is a moral invaders. Many tens of millions of people in the world of damaged morale because pornographic films starring Miyabi. If I were the person or people who have power, I will thwart the coming of Miyabi. I will also provide sanctions against the production house that brings the hot star.
I hope the government will be give positive respond and take the right action. Porn is different with culture or art. All related to pornography is not art. Clearly there is no relation between porn and art.
Wednesday, September 23, 2009
The USS John F Kennedy were helpless and sank typhoons and hurricanes ravaged. 2012 movie directed by Roland Emmerich is played by Hollywood actors like John Cusack reliable, Amanda Peet, Danny Glover, Oliver Platt, and Woody Harelson. 2012 movie will be shown in cinemas in United States and the UK in November 2009. This movie will suck a lot of spectators around the world.
Thursday, September 17, 2009
In the ambush location in a house in the village of Kepuh Sari, Jebres, Solo police found various types of long guns such as AK 47, M 13 and guns FN, police also found bullets of them. They also found a bomb ready to explode, 8 bags of bomb material and grenades. Weight eighth sack of the estimated 200 kg. The current condition of the house where the terrorists severely nest totally damaged, even worse than in Temanggung in Mohjahri house.
Kapolri Bambang Hendarso Danuri ensure the death of Noordin M Top in a terrorist raid in Solo, Central Java. He said there were 14 physical characteristics of one's body with the physical characteristics Noordin M Top, including fingerprint similarities. All of the evidence is legally accountable formal thought. Police repeatedly expressed his appreciation for the struggled of densus88 team in combating terrorists.
Tuesday, September 1, 2009
Beside that there is the greatest Indonesian SEO Contest ever in the world. I said the greates Contest SEO because the prize of this contest totally reach 27.5 million rupiahs. It is SEO Contest mengembalikan jati diri bangsa. Same as www.gzon.us mencari pemilik, this contest also use google.co.id as jury. Top ten search result will get prize mentioned above. What do you think about thin even?
Monday, August 24, 2009
Pendet Indonesia is a traditional dance that grew and developed in Bali since thousands of years ago. Initially this dance is a dance of worship gods. Then in 1950 along with President Soekarno, cultural Bali change Pendet dance as a national dance. Now, Pendet dance used to accept guests in hotels in Bali.
The Indonesian government has send a protest to Malaysia goverment. If Malaysia did not respond to this protest, Indonesia will bring this case to the law. Indonesia will take the Pendet case to the Court International.
Thursday, August 20, 2009
My position as a principal director in Asian Pacific Regional Clearing House has made me to have access to files and products that can help you if you are in one way or the other interested in South East Asia business connections.
In April 2006, Lu Yunpeng, a multimillionaire and president of Henan-based Yunpeng Cultural Development Co Ltd China moved some cash through our clearing house system from Europe . The fund arrived in South East Asia during the time Lu Yunpeng was been tried for murder in China . As his account officer he instructed that I should put a hold on the fund that was supposed to go to China pending on the outcome of his trial.
In May 2006 he was sentenced to death and the fund remained unclaimed till date.As his account officer I was aware that nobody knows about this fund movement except his cousin who was also sentenced to death with him.
Please see: http://en.ce.cn/National/Local/200605/18/t20060518_7005764.shtml
I want to utilize this opportunity and make use of this fund. I want to work with you on it. The amount involved is in millions and I will tell you the exact figure when I hear from you.
Please reply back and lets benefit from this golden opportunity. You are my first contact. I shall wait three days and if I do not hear from you, I shall look for another person.
Wednesday, August 19, 2009
How to install it and how to setting memory card of emulator, you may read it in emurayden PSX Emulator PS. But the direction written in Indonesian, you may use google translate.
After I install emurayden PSX I did not need PS 1 machine again, just sit in front of your computer and safe your money, and one more, lets play football game. You definitely lose against me :D
Saturday, August 8, 2009
Arrest of Noordin M Top done since Friday, 7 August 2009 at 17.00 GMT+7 until 8 August 2009. Noordin M Top killed at about 10.00 Jakarta time. Noordin M Top corpse was brought to Jakarta for an autopsy.
You may see the news of arrest of Noordin M Top on MetroTV Online. You also may read it on Blog Berita Indonesia.
Saturday, August 1, 2009
In the ad, appearing topless Eva on the couch with the aura that is quite seduce. "I like it. That's because the ads of Calvin, is very provocative and slightly controversial", said Eva Mendez.
"In the ad, you will see me roll on the bed. Basically, all that I do indeed, "he said.
Honest, more Eva, he enjoys himself when he felt very feminine. "I like the dress or skirt wear wear trousers rather than jeans," he said "I think, that makes women feel sexy is a sense of trust himself," augment him. (thesun.co.uk)
Here is the controversial video of Eva Mendez in an ad Perfume Calvin Klein, Secret Obession.
Thursday, July 30, 2009
Noordin M Top makes a statement on the Internet related with Marriott and Ritz Carlton bombing. Noordin M Top confess that he is the most responsibility people about Marriott and Ritz Carlton bombing. He wrote it in a site based on blogspot.com, it named http://mediaislam-b****o. blogspot.com.. On the date of post it written 26 July 2009 but, an alumni BIN (Indonesian Intelligent Organization) said that this post written on 18 July 2009, 1 day after bombing.
However, the police must make sure whether the letter/confess came from Noordin M Top or other parties who want to take a chance and want to distract attention. You may read the contents of Noordin M Top's letter in link Surat Pernyataan Noordin M Top. It is written in Indonesian.
Meanwhile, the Indonesian population confess that they do not fear about the threats from terrorists. Indonesia will struggle against terrorists and the struggle to restore the identity of the nation. To show that Indonesia is a safe country. In the Marriott bombing and the Ritz Carlton is just one toxic air drops of golden sea. One of them realized in contest blog titled mengembalikan jati diri bangsa.
Saturday, July 25, 2009
While the allegations, the employee involved is Ibrahim, a florist who works part time at the Ritz Carlton. Police suspicious because Ibrahim disappeared after the bomb detonation in the Marriott Hotel and the Ritz Carlton Hotel. Through CCTV cameras, when the bomb exploded, he was there. He initially suspected as the blasting, but after the DNA tests of all the victims, there is no one to match him. Police concluded he not died at this time, but in a hiding place. Ibrahim's family said that they did not know of the existence of him now.
At home in the Village Sempora, District Cilimus, Kuningan District, journalists can only meet the wife of Ibrahim and his children. The wife is also worried and nervous because the husband no news since two bombs in the five-star hotel. Ibrahim's wife, met him last July 13 when Ibrahim went to Jakarta for work. He worked as a florist company in the interest of coupling hired Ritz-Carlton. Indeed, he always went home two weeks to Kuningan.
Detik.com then investigate a small house in Cililitan, Jakarta. He ever lived with his parents in the house. After marriage with the Suci, he also had lived in this house. Some children also said to be born in this house. Some of Ibrahim's son were born in this house. But the house is disordered. House painted white that is loaded with the spider nest is empty since 2007. Police say had a rifle this house two days ago. He really is not detected again in this house.
Some of the mystery in this house appears. There are two sentences in Arabic calligraphy on the wall. The note is actually normal for people who have been studying in the pesantren, or those who are obedient worship. However, the 'motto jihad' that can be defined by the police or other people. At home there is also a picture of two-storeyed building is described as a burn. There is also a T-shirt with a Ritz-Carlton swing. Somehow what the purpose of all this.
So where is Ibrahim? Still mysterious. Because this is mysterious, there are already allegations of Ibrahim is in the hands of police. If the issue is true, what reason he secured the police?
The loss of Ibrahim still question to this day. Ordinary people have known, when there is someone who suddenly disappeared after a bomb explosion, he could be secured for the purposes of police investigations. And the police will not publish it until the investigation is completed. Does he have such a habit as it is suspected that as people involved in?
Thursday, July 23, 2009
Sketches the face of the perpetrator bombardment at Marriott and Ritz Carlton police deployed in all media and also pass it on at a public place, with full-feature characteristics. Here are the characteristics of the face of perpetrator suicide bomber JW Marriott - Ritz Carlton, Mega Kuningan, Jakarta, Indonesia.
Sketch the face of bombardment Ritz Carlton :
- Age about 40 years plus minus 5 to 10 years
- Skin Sawo matang / Most of Asitic skin
- Black short Hair
- Height 165 centimeters
Sketch the face of bombardment JW Marriott
- Age 17 years plus with a minus 4 to 5 years
- Skin white
- Straight black short Hair
- Height 180 centimeters
- Size 42-43 centimeters feet
Wednesday, July 22, 2009
Second phase, Chelsie over the field, the back player of Inter Milan desperately to banish the ball from the batsman. In the 50th minute, when crisis occurs in front of the wicket, the ball touched by the back player of Inter Milan and the referee reward prizes kick penalties kick for Chelsie. Penalties kick taken by Frank Lampar and he did it well. 2-0 for Chelsie victory.
After defeat 2-0, Jose Morinho entered striker Ibrahimovic. Inter Milan game quality improved. Two opportunities were created by the Inter Milan players, but Cech worked well. Score does not change until the end of the match. The final score the match Chelsie vs Inter Milan is 2-0.
Tuesday, July 21, 2009
At MU vs Malaysia II, MU dominated the match. Even 11 minutes in the first round Dardob Macheda, young stickers ages 17 years old make a goal, 1-0 for MU. Five minutes later Michael Owen create the second goal since he join with the MU. The first Michael Owen goal was created in the match MU vs Malaysia I. MU winning 2-0 until the first round ended.
In the second phase, MU increasingly dominate the match after the entry of some of the core. Amri Yahya Malaysia striker who print 2 goals in the match MU vs Malaysia first round, this time he was not lucky, no goal created by him at MU vs Malaysia II. However, there is no change of score until the match ended. Final score of the match MU vs Malaysia 2 is a 2-0 for MU.
Sunday, July 19, 2009
After conducting the investigation for several hours, the team found no bomb Gegana is. According to police, after two bombs exploded in the Mega Kuningan area, Friday, which killed nine people and 55 other people injured, every bomb threat will be handled seriously. Jakarta's still in a standby condition / status siaga.
Standby status is also done in Bali, Surabaya, Medan and several other large cities in Indonesia.
Saturday, July 18, 2009
Rivalry football Manchester United Vs Malaysia under 23 national team, MU Asian Tour program was very interesting. Malaysia did a heroic resistance against Manchester United. But on 15th minutes Wayne Rooney successfully made a goal into Malaysia, which is guarded by Fahrizal. At a few minutes later, MU works to improve the game and they made some opportunities, until finally, Nani break hurdle Malaysia. 2-0 to MU.
Manchester United vs Malaysia National Team increasingly fierce. Lag 2-0 didn't make Malaysia Team quail. The working hard of Malaysia Team made some opportunities. One opportunity that was almost hurdle Van De Sar is a backlash from Amri Yahya. Just minutes on end the first round, Amri Yahya who guarded by the 2 MU back players successfully pass the ball to wicket Van De Sar from distance that is far enough. Amri Yahya made goal for Malaysia. Amri Yahya's goal was a very nice goal. Amri Yahya backlash directed to the far goalpost mast MU and Van De Saar can not reach the ball. The end score of MU vs Malaysia Under 23 at first round ended was 2-1.
Several minutes beginning the second phase Amri Yahya made the second goal, Amry Yahya successfully deceive goalkeeper MU. Goal Amri Yahya was created with a very very beautiful. The score of Manchester United Vs Malaysia become 2-2.
Second round the match MU vs Malaysia almost 50% of Malaysia under the ball. At the beginning 10 minutes to the second round, Ferguson replace 4 players at once. Wayne Roney, Berbatoc drawn out, Gigs and Michael Owen entry.
Michael Owen finally determines a victory in the match MU vs Malaysia friendship on the last minutes of second round. Final score MU vs Malaysia is 3-2 to MU victory over Malaysia.
You may see the video here, Goal Process MU vs Malaysia U-23.
Friday, July 17, 2009
SBY in his speech also said that today he got a report from the BIN that says there is a group of people who make a revolution if SBY winning the election, disrupt the election in Indonesia such as in Iran, impose SBY, occupied KPU building at the time of the election result announcements, and there are parties who said SBY should not be appointed to be president of whatever happens. SBY also said that that it is not slander but intellegent results, he said that he has video evidence. SBY also ask for BIN, the TNI and the police to immediately reveal the case of blasting bombs in the Marriott Hotel and Ritz Carlton this morning.
However, SBY did not want to accuse anyone behind the tragedy Marriott, he was asking all parties to thoroughly investigate the case of blasting bombs in the Mega Kuningan area. Cases must be decreased based on the applicable law. And after all was SBY asks for actors and mastermind behind the Marriott bombardment should be punished whoever and whatever political background. Hopefully the truth can be revealed as soon as possible.
list names Victims explosion Bom Marriott and Ritz Carlton treated in the Hospital Jakarta. There are 17 victims treated at Jakarta Hospital:
Data from Kompas.com:
1. Maulana Sidik (21), employees Ritz-Carlton Hotel, residents Prapatan Tegal Parang, Jakarta, is still in state care.
2. Aryo (31), employees Ritz-Carlton Hotel, residents Bintaro Sector 9, is still in state care.
3. Edward Thielsen, employees Erlangga Kitchen JW Marriott Hotel, still in state care.
4. David Petter, still in the status of care in the operating room.
5. Beni Purwanto, officer JW Marriott Hotel, still in state care.
6. Adri (23), status is still in care.
7. Dikdik Ahmad Taufik (39), citizen Srengseng Bambu I, still in state care.
8. Dewi Lestari (22), Panin Bank employees, citizens Jl Tantular MPU, has returned.
9. Ririn (25), pegawati Panin Bank, has returned.
List the names of victims of bomb explosion in Marriott Hotel and names of the victims of Ritz Carlton Bombing treated in the MMC Kuningan hospital. There are 39 blast victims treated at the MMC hospital Kuningan but only 29 names that can be reported. 10 others not listed yet.
1. Adrianto Makhnbu
2. Catur Rindu
3. Cho Sang Ing
4. Dadang Hidayat
6. Hut Bosco Keung
7. Ibushi Asu
8. Jame Makkeba
10. Jurika Kartika
15. Mr William
16. Noke Kiroyan
17. Oki Utomo
19. Regi Aalstad
20. Rinaldi Domika
21. Scott Mirillies
22. Shweta Shukita
23. Simon Louis
29. Joseph P
Related News :
Bomb Exploded In Marriott Hotel and Ritz Carlton Hotel
The explosion happened in Marriot Hotel Lobby is large enough and the glass building that is building around the JW Marriot. Explosion at the Marriot Hotel is the second time that happened in Marriot Hotel previous GW Marriot hotel had been the terrorist target at 5th August 2003, 150 people injured. According to the news in ANTV second explosion occurred in the Ritz Carlton.
Based on information from ANTV, explosion occurred twice, the first large-scale explosion and a second smaller scale. The first explosion occurred in the JW Marriot and the second occurred in Ritz Carlton Hotel.
Tuesday, July 7, 2009
Gold-plated box was purchased at say U.S. $ 25,000. Chest-plated 14 carat gold is specifically requested by the family of Jacko Batesville Casket Company. Berlapie golden box called the Promethean dominated with blue velvet material. Such as quoted from TMZ, Friday 3 July 2009.
According to the plan, 7 July Jacko future family will hold funeral ceremony to honor the last performers who are phenomenal. The family provides as many as 11 thousand tickets for the Jacko fans who want to witness the burial ceremony the album 'Thriller' it. Tickets will be given for free.
Jacko will be buried at the Staples Center. Say, Jacko will be buried in Forest Lawn cemetery a park in the area of elite Hollywood Hills.
Monday, June 29, 2009
Respond to this Manohara said that while he was in the razor blade, he can not do anything. Dibius such as rigid body. Mouth can not say words. Manohara can feel pain, Manohara eyes can see the breast when Manohara disilet, also normal nose, the ears to hear, but Manohara can not move the whole body, Manohara also can not cry. He could only weep and leave the body before finally disilet Muhammad Fakhry menyetubuhi Manohara. Is not very humane.
He be in the room that looks like a prison and can not exit. Since it does not want to eat Manohara, emaciated body. Why now Manohara visible body fat? Manohara confess Manohara several times in the needle by Muhammad Fakhry. Manohara the injection on the body weight increased 10 kg in just 4 days time.
Translated from life is too short to drink bad coffee blog
Wednesday, June 24, 2009
Marcella Zalianty's family confess happy and have many things planned after Marsella from prison. There are pray together, and also in the near future they will pay a visit to the orphanage as an expression of gratitude. It was difficult to restore that reputation. Prison's ex who is now attached to it is difficult to be erased. Sexy Artist descent Chinese - Bataks said that she will do the best in the next time and learn from the past. It is also a result of work hard of Mascella's lawyer, Hotman Sitompul.
Wednesday, June 10, 2009
Like their Greek contemporaries, early Roman advocates were trained in rhetoric, not law, and the judges before whom they argued were also not law-trained. But very early on, unlike Athens, Rome developed a class of specialists who were learned in the law, known as jurisconsults (iuris consulti). Jurisconsults were wealthy amateurs who dabbled in law as an intellectual hobby; they did not make their primary living from it. They gave legal opinions (responsa) on legal issues to all comers (a practice known as publice respondere). Roman judges and governors would routinely consult with an advisory panel of jurisconsults before rendering a decision, and advocates and ordinary people also went to jurisconsults for legal opinions. Thus, the Romans were the first to have a class of people who spent their days thinking about legal problems, and this is why their law became so "precise, detailed, and technical."
Monday, May 25, 2009
Arguing a client's case before a judge or jury in a court of law is the traditional province of the barrister in England, and of advocates in some civil law jurisdictions. However, the boundary between barristers and solicitors has evolved. In England today, the barrister monopoly covers only appellate courts, and barristers must compete directly with solicitors in many trial courts. In countries like the United States that have fused legal professions, there are trial lawyers who specialize in trying cases in court, but trial lawyers do not have a de jure monopoly like barristers.
In some countries, litigants have the option of arguing pro se, or on their own behalf. It is common for litigants to appear unrepresented before certain courts like small claims courts; indeed, many such courts do not allow lawyers to speak for their clients, in an effort to save money for all participants in a small case. In other countries, like Venezuela, no one may appear before a judge unless represented by a lawyer. The advantage of the latter regime is that lawyers are familiar with the court's customs and procedures, and make the legal system more efficient for all involved. Unrepresented parties often damage their own credibility or slow the court down as a result of their inexperience.
Thursday, May 21, 2009
In the words of Fritz Schulz, "by the fourth century things had changed in the eastern Empire: advocates now were really lawyers." For example, by the fourth century, advocates had to be enrolled on the bar of a court to argue before it, they could only be attached to one court at a time, and there were restrictions (which came and went depending upon who was emperor) on how many advocates could be enrolled at a particular court. By the 380s, advocates were studying law in addition to rhetoric (thus reducing the need for a separate class of jurisconsults); in 460, Emperor Leo imposed a requirement that new advocates seeking admission had to produce testimonials from their teachers; and by the sixth century, a regular course of legal study lasting about four years was required for admission. Claudius's fee ceiling lasted all the way into the Byzantine period, though by then it was measured at 100 solidi. Of course, it was widely evaded, either through demands for maintenance and expenses or a sub rosa barter transaction. The latter was cause for disbarment.
The notaries (tabelliones) appeared in the late Roman Empire. Like their modern-day descendants, the civil law notaries, they were responsible for drafting wills, conveyances, and contracts. They were ubiquitous and most villages had one. In Roman times, notaries were widely considered to be inferior to advocates and jurisconsults. Roman notaries were not law-trained; they were barely literate hacks who wrapped the simplest transactions in mountains of legal jargon, since they were paid by the line.
Tuesday, May 12, 2009
The legal profession's return was marked by the renewed efforts of church and state to regulate it. In 1231 two French councils mandated that lawyers had to swear an oath of admission before practicing before the bishop's courts in their regions, and a similar oath was promulgated by the papal legate in London in 1237. During the same decade, Frederick II, the emperor of the Kingdom of Sicily, imposed a similar oath in his civil courts. By 1250 the nucleus of a new legal profession had clearly formed. The new trend towards professionalization culminated in a controversial proposal at the Second Council of Lyon in 1275 that all ecclesiastical courts should require an oath of admission. Although not adopted by the council, it was highly influential in many such courts throughout Europe. The civil courts in England also joined the trend towards professionalization; in 1275 a statute was enacted that prescribed punishment for professional lawyers guilty of deceit, and in 1280 the mayor's court of the city of London Justify Fullpromulgated regulations concerning admission procedures, including the administering of an oach.
Friday, May 1, 2009
The earliest people who could be described as "lawyers" were probably the orators of ancient Athens (see History of Athens). However, Athenian orators faced serious structural obstacles. First, there was a rule that individuals were supposed to plead their own cases, which was soon bypassed by the increasing tendency of individuals to ask a "friend" for assistance. However, around the middle of the fourth century, the Athenians disposed of the perfunctory request for a friend. Second, a more serious obstacle, which the Athenian orators never completely overcame, was the rule that no one could take a fee to plead the cause of another. This law was widely disregarded in practice, but was never abolished, which meant that orators could never present themselves as legal professionals or experts. They had to uphold the legal fiction that they were merely an ordinary citizen generously helping out a friend for free, and thus they could never organize into a real profession — with professional associations and titles and all the other pomp and circumstance — like their modern counterparts. Therefore, if one narrows the definition to those men who could practice the legal profession openly and legally, then the first lawyers would have to be the orators of ancient Rome.
Saturday, April 25, 2009
Lawyers are paid for their work in a variety of ways. In private practice, they may work for an hourly fee according to a billable hour structure, a contingency fee (usually in cases involving personal injury), or a lump sum payment if the matter is straightforward. Normally, most lawyers negotiate a written fee agreement up front and may require a non-refundable retainer in advance. In many countries there are fee-shifting arrangements by which the loser must pay the winner's fees and costs; the United States is the major exception, although in turn, its legislators have carved out many exceptions to the so-called "American Rule" of no fee shifting.
Lawyers working directly on the payroll of governments, nonprofits, and corporations usually earn a regular annual salary. In many countries, with the notable exception of Germany, lawyers can also volunteer their labor in the service of worthy causes through an arrangement called pro bono (for the common good). Traditionally such work was performed on behalf of the poor, but in some countries it has now expanded to many other causes such as the environment.
In some countries, there are legal aid lawyers who specialize in providing legal services to the indigent. France and Spain even have formal fee structures by which lawyers are compensated by the government for legal aid cases on a per-case basis. A similar system, though not as extensive or generous, operates in Australia, Canada, as well as South Africa.
In other countries, legal aid specialists are practically nonexistent. This may be because non-lawyers are allowed to provide such services; in both Italy and Belgium, trade unions and political parties provide what can be characterized as legal aid services. Some legal aid in Belgium is also provided by young lawyer apprentices subsidized by local bar associations (known as the pro deo system), as well as consumer protection nonprofit organizations and Public Assistance Agencies subsidized by local governments. In Germany, mandatory fee structures have enabled widespread implementation of affordable legal expense insurance.
Tuesday, April 14, 2009
Public distrust of lawyers reached record heights in the United States after the Watergate scandal. In the aftermath of Watergate, legal self-help books became popular among those who wished to solve their legal problems without having to deal with lawyers. Lawyer jokes (already a perennial favorite) also soared in popularity in English-speaking North America as a result of Watergate. In 1989, American legal self-help publisher Nolo Press published a 171-page compilation of negative anecdotes about lawyers from throughout human history.
A 2004 comparative study examined the various legal professions around the world and noted a "remarkable consistency" in complaints about lawyers that transcends both time and locale. The authors then generalized the most common complaints about lawyers as follows:
* abuse of litigation in various ways, including using dilatory tactics and false evidence and making frivolous arguments to the courts;
* preparation of false documentation, such as false deeds, contracts, or wills;
* deceiving clients and other persons and misappropriating property;
* procrastination in dealings with clients; and
* charging excessive fees.
Friday, April 10, 2009
In some countries, like France and Italy, lawyers have also formed trade unions.
Thursday, April 2, 2009
In most civil law countries, the government has traditionally exercised tight control over the legal profession in order to ensure a steady supply of loyal judges and bureaucrats. That is, lawyers were expected first and foremost to serve the state, and the availability of counsel for private litigants was an afterthought. Even in civil law countries like Norway which have partially self-regulating professions, the Ministry of Justice is the sole issuer of licenses, and makes its own independent re-evaluation of a lawyer's fitness to practice after a lawyer has been expelled from the Advocates' Association. Brazil is an unusual exception in that its national Order of Advocates has become a fully self-regulating institution (with direct control over licensing) and has successfully resisted government attempts to place it under the control of the Ministry of Labor.
Of all the civil law countries, Communist countries historically went the farthest towards total state control, with all Communist lawyers forced to practice in collectives by the mid-1950s. China is a prime example: technically, the People's Republic of China did not have lawyers, and instead had only poorly-trained, state-employed "legal workers," prior to the enactment of a comprehensive reform package in 1996 by the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress.
In contrast, common law lawyers have traditionally regulated themselves through institutions where the influence of non-lawyers, if any, was weak and indirect (despite nominal state control). Such institutions have been traditionally dominated by private practitioners who opposed strong state control of the profession on the grounds that it would endanger the ability of lawyers to zealously and competently advocate their clients' causes in the adversarial system of justice.
However, the concept of the self-regulating profession has been criticized as a sham which serves to legitimize the professional monopoly while protecting the profession from public scrutiny.Disciplinary mechanisms have been astonishingly ineffective, and penalties have been light or nonexistent.
Tuesday, March 24, 2009
In some jurisdictions, either the judiciary or the Ministry of Justice directly supervises the admission, licensing, and regulation of lawyers.
Other jurisdictions, by statute, tradition, or court order, have granted such powers to a professional association which all lawyers must belong to. In the U.S., such associations are known as mandatory, integrated, or unified bar associations. In the Commonwealth of Nations, similar organizations are known as Inns of Court, bar councils or law societies. In civil law countries, comparable organizations are known as Orders of Advocates, Chambers of Advocates, Colleges of Advocates, Faculties of Advocates, or similar names. Generally, a nonmember caught practicing law may be liable for the crime of unauthorized practice of law.
In common law countries with divided legal professions, barristers traditionally belong to the bar council (or an Inn of Court) and solicitors belong to the law society. In the English-speaking world, the largest mandatory professional association of lawyers is the State Bar of California, with 200,000 members.
Some countries admit and regulate lawyers at the national level, so that a lawyer, once licensed, can argue cases in any court in the land. This is common in small countries like New Zealand, Japan, and Belgium. Others, especially those with federal governments, tend to regulate lawyers at the state or provincial level; this is the case in the United States, Canada, Australia, and Switzerland, to name a few. Brazil is the most well-known federal government that regulates lawyers at the national level.
Some countries, like Italy, regulate lawyers at the regional level, and a few, like Belgium, even regulate them at the local level (that is, they are licensed and regulated by the local equivalent of bar associations but can advocate in courts nationwide). In Germany, lawyers are admitted to regional bars and may appear for clients before all courts nationwide with the exception of the Federal Court of Justice of Germany (Bundesgerichthof or BGH); oddly, securing admission to the BGH's bar limits a lawyer's practice solely to the supreme federal courts and the Federal Constitutional Court of Germany.
Generally, geographic limitations can be troublesome for a lawyer who discovers that his client's cause requires him to litigate in a court beyond the normal geographic scope of his license. Although most courts have special pro hac vice rules for such occasions, the lawyer will still have to deal with a different set of professional responsibility rules, as well as the possibility of other differences in substantive and procedural law.
Some countries grant licenses to non-resident lawyers, who may then appear regularly on behalf of foreign clients. Others require all lawyers to live in the jurisdiction or to even hold national citizenship as a prerequisite for receiving a license to practice. But the trend in industrialized countries since the 1970s has been to abolish citizenship and residency restrictions. For example, the Supreme Court of Canada struck down a citizenship requirement on equality rights grounds in 1989, and similarly, American citizenship and residency requirements were struck down as unconstitutional by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1973 and 1985, respectively. The European Court of Justice made similar decisions in 1974 and 1977 striking down citizenship restrictions in Belgium and France.
Tuesday, March 17, 2009
Main article: Law firm
Lawyers in private practice generally work in specialized businesses known as law firms, with the exception of English barristers. The vast majority of law firms worldwide are small businesses that range in size from 1 to 10 lawyers. The United States, with its large number of firms with more than 50 lawyers, is an exception. The United Kingdom and Australia are also exceptions, as the UK, Australia and the U.S. are now home to several firms with more than 1,000 lawyers after a wave of mergers in the late 1990s.
Notably, barristers in England and Wales and some states in Australia do not work in "law firms". Those who offer their services to the general public — as opposed to those working "in house" — are required to be self-employed. Most work in groupings known as "sets" or "chambers", where some administrative and marketing costs are shared. An important effect of this different organizational structure is that there is no conflict of interest where barristers in the same chambers work for opposing sides in a case, and in some specialised chambers this is commonplace.
Thursday, March 12, 2009
The career structure of lawyers varies widely from one country to the next.
Common law/civil law
In most common law countries, especially those with fused professions, lawyers have many options over the course of their careers. Besides private practice, they can always aspire to becoming a prosecutor, government counsel, corporate in-house counsel, administrative law judge, judge, arbitrator, law professor, or politician. There are also many non-legal jobs which legal training is good preparation for, such as corporate executive, government administrator, investment banker, entrepreneur, or journalist. In developing countries like India, a large majority of law students never actually practice, but simply use their law degree as a foundation for careers in other fields.
In most civil law countries, lawyers generally structure their legal education around their chosen specialty; the boundaries between different types of lawyers are carefully defined and hard to cross. After one earns a law degree, career mobility may be severely constrained. For example, unlike their American counterparts, it is difficult for German judges to leave the bench and become advocates in private practice. Another interesting example is France, where for much of the 20th century, all magistrates were graduates of an elite professional school for judges. Although the French magistracy has begun experimenting with the Anglo-American model of appointing judges from accomplished advocates, the few advocates who have actually joined the bench this way are looked down upon by their colleagues who have taken the traditional route to magistracy.
In a few civil law countries, such as Sweden, the legal profession is not rigorously bifurcated and everyone within it can easily change roles and arenas.
Thursday, March 5, 2009
Some jurisdictions grant a "diploma privilege" to certain institutions, so that merely earning a degree or credential from those institutions is the primary qualification for practicing law. Mexico allows anyone with a law degree to practice law. However, in a large number of countries, a law student must pass a bar examination (or a series of such examinations) before receiving a license to practice. In a handful of U.S. states, one may become an attorney by simply passing the bar examination, without having to attend law school first (though very few people actually become lawyers that way).
Some countries require a formal apprenticeship with an experienced practitioner, while others do not. For example, a few jurisdictions still allow an apprenticeship in place of any kind of formal legal education (though the number of persons who actually become lawyers that way is increasingly rare).
Saturday, February 21, 2009
In other countries, particularly the United States, law is primarily taught at law schools. In the United States and countries following the American model, (such as Canada with the exception of the province of Quebec) law schools are graduate/professional schools where a bachelor's degree is a prerequisite for admission. Most law schools are part of universities but a few are independent institutions. Law schools in the United States (and some in Canada and elsewhere) award graduating students a J.D. (Juris Doctor/Doctor of Jurisprudence) (as opposed to the Bachelor of Laws) as the practitioner's law degree. However, like other professional doctorates (including the M.D.), the J.D. is not the exact equivalent of the Ph.D., since it does not require the submission of a full dissertation based on original research. Many schools also offer post-doctoral law degrees such as the LL.M (Legum Magister/Master of Laws), or the S.J.D. (Scientiae Juridicae Doctor/Doctor of the Science of Law) for students interested in advancing their knowledge and credentials in a specific area of law.
The methods and quality of legal education vary widely. Some countries require extensive clinical training in the form of apprenticeships or special clinical courses. Others do not, like Venezuela. A few countries prefer to teach through assigned readings of judicial opinions (the casebook method) followed by intense in-class cross-examination by the professor (the Socratic method). Many others have only lectures on highly abstract legal doctrines, which forces young lawyers to figure out how to actually think and write like a lawyer at their first apprenticeship (or job). Depending upon the country, a typical class size could range from five students in a seminar to five hundred in a giant lecture room. In the United States, law schools maintain small class sizes, and as such, grant admissions on a more limited and competitive basis.
Some countries, particularly industrialized ones, have a traditional preference for full-time law programs, while in developing countries, students often work full- or part-time to pay the tuition and fees of their part-time law programs.
Law schools in developing countries share several common problems, such as an overreliance on practicing judges and lawyers who treat teaching as a part-time hobby (and a concomitant scarcity of full-time law professors); incompetent faculty with questionable credentials; and textbooks that lag behind the current state of the law by two or three decades.
Saturday, February 7, 2009
In the United States, the estates of the deceased must be administered by a court through probate. American lawyers have a profitable monopoly on dispensing advice about probate law (which has been heavily criticized).
Prosecution and defense of criminal suspects
In many civil law countries, prosecutors are trained and employed as part of the judiciary; they are law-trained jurists, but may not necessarily be lawyers in the sense that the word is used in the common law world. In common law countries, prosecutors are usually lawyers holding regular licenses who simply happen to work for the government office that files criminal charges against suspects. Criminal defense lawyers specialize in the defense of those charged with any crimes.
Thursday, January 29, 2009
In other countries, jurists who hold law degrees are allowed to provide legal advice to individuals or to corporations, and it is irrelevant if they lack a license and cannot appear in court. Some countries go further; in England and Wales, there is no general prohibition on the giving of legal advice. Sometimes civil law notaries are allowed to give legal advice, as in Belgium. In many countries, non-jurist accountants may provide what is technically legal advice in tax and accounting matters.
Friday, January 23, 2009
In England, only solicitors were traditionally in direct contact with the client. The solicitor retained a barrister if one was necessary and acted as an intermediary between the barrister and the client. In most cases a barrister would be obliged, under what is known as the "cab rank rule", to accept instructions for a case in an area in which they held themselves out as practising, at a court at which they normally appeared and at their usual rates.
Saturday, January 17, 2009
In others, the use of a lawyer is optional and banks, title companies, or realtors may be used instead. In some civil law jurisdictions, real estate transactions are handled by civil law notaries. In England and Wales a special class of legal professional–the licensed conveyancer–is also allowed to carry out conveyancing services for reward.
Sunday, January 11, 2009
Negotiating and drafting contracts
Source : Wikipedia